Machinery manufacturing technology has developed rapidly from both aspects of improving accuracy and productivity. In terms of increasing productivity, increasing the degree of automation has long been the direction of development of countries. In recent years, precision parts processing has developed rapidly from CNC to CIMS, and has been applied within a certain range. From precision improvement to ultra-precision machining, this is also the development direction of major developed countries in the world.
(1) Precision machining methods
According to the mechanism and characteristics of processing methods, precision machining can be divided into four categories: tool cutting, abrasive processing, special processing and composite processing.
With the development of processing technology, many new processing mechanisms have appeared. Therefore, in the processing of precision parts, especially in microfabrication, according to the forming mechanism and characteristics of parts. Divided into three categories of removal processing, combined processing and deformation processing. Removal processing, also called separation processing, is the use of processing methods such as force, heat, electricity, and light to remove a portion of material from a workpiece, such as cutting, grinding, and electrical processing. Combined processing is the use of physical and chemical methods to adhere to the surface of the workpiece, deposit, infiltrate, weld a layer of different materials, such as electroplating, vapor deposition, oxidation, carburizing, bonding, welding, etc. Deformation processing is the use of force, heat, molecular motion and other means to deform the workpiece and change its size, shape and properties, such as casting, forging, etc. It can be seen that the concept of processing has broken through the traditional removal processing methods, and has characteristics such as stacking, growth, and deformation. At the same time, it emphasizes the surface treatment and forms the surface processing technology.
(2) Technical and technological advantages of precision machining
Compared with the cutting-out process, the advantages of cutting machining for precision machining are firstly that it has a high material removal rate and good economics, such as compared with laser plasma processing. This is because of this. At present, only a large supply of this technology can achieve a high material removal rate. On the other hand, whether the processed workpiece can meet the size and shape accuracy requirements remains a question. Chipless pressure machining is mainly used for large-scale production, and often requires subsequent cutting to obtain the final qualified workpiece shape. Therefore, the main advantage of machining is that the workpiece can reach a higher precision. Precision machining is widely used, especially with the development trend of small batch production, the shape and dimensional accuracy requirements of workpieces are becoming higher and higher, opening up a new and wider field for precision machining. It is natural to use a lathe to perform various turning processes, but it should also be noted that the drilling, milling, grinding, and tooth cutting processes can be concentrated on a single lathe (process integration). This is now developing Machining method of composite machine tool for turning and milling machining center.